Time Warner

Lizzie Michael and Andrew Maercklein
Time Warner, Inc. logo

Time Warner, Inc. logo [1]

Time Warner, Inc.

One Time Warner Center
New York, NY 10019-8016


Time Warner, Inc. is an entertainment and media conglomerate whose works and influence reaches all over the world. First created in 1989 in a $14 billion merger between Time, Inc. and Warner Communications, Time Warner now owns magazines such as Time, People, and Sports Illustrated; HBO, The CW, and Cinemax, as well as the Turner Broadcasting System, which in turn holds networks such as TBS, CNN and Cartoon Network; DC Comics; and one of the world’s largest production companies, Warner Brothers Entertainment. [2] [3].

Some of Time Warner's assets. [4]

Some of Time Warner’s assets. [4]

The company has undergone a few trouble spots in the past, including a $164 deal with AOL in the year 2000. [5]. The deal, which eventually proved to be misguided and led to major financial losses in 2002, was said to be “the biggest mistake in corporate history” by current CEO and Chairman Jeff Bewkes. [6]. That being said, Time Warner has since rebouded and is currently enjoying success from several of its assets, including HBO and Warner Brothers, and is looking forward to the completion of an acquisition, with a total transaction value of
$108.7 billion, with AT&T. [7].

Who are some key executives?

Financial information

Time Warner is a publicly traded company on the NYSE under the ticket TWX. As of 11/17/16, their current stock price is $93.20, as compared to one of their primary competitors, Walt Disney Co., who is at $98.82. [9]. On Oct. 27 the company announced cash dividends for Common Stock at $0.4025 per share, with a record date of Nov. 30. and a payment date of Dec. 15. [10] [11]. Thanks in part to the AT&T announcement, Time Warner’s stock has been on the upswing, having increased nearly 22.07% since April 2016; additionally, about 67% of analysts covering Warner’s stock rate this as a good time to buy. [11].

TW revenues and earnings per share [12]

TW revenues and earnings per share [12]

In Warner’s 3rd quarter reports for 2016, total revenues for Turner, HBO, and Warner Broadcasting combined were at more than $7 billion, and there was an increase of $153 million in cash and cash equivalents. [13]. With the recently released Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them and HBO’s Westworld recently having success, revenues from ticket sales and merchandising for Time Warner can be expected to increase in 2016’s 4th quarter, and should give the company a strong year-end yield. [14].

Warner Brothers

Warner Bros. Logo [14]

Warner Bros. Logo [15]

Warner Bros., which was founded in 1923 and notably produced the first “talkie” in 1927’s The Jazz Singer, is one of the largest production companies in the world, with both New Line Cinema and DC Films in its toolbox. [16]. In 2015, Warner Bros.’ worldwide box office receipts exceeded $3 billion for the ninth consecutive year ($3.71 billion worldwide), and saw both international and domestic reaching the billions. [17].


The company houses several major franchises, including the Matrix series, the Harry Potter Franchise, and the world of DC Comics. In 2016 alone, multiple films were released to massive success, including Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, Sully, Suicide Squad, and Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find ThemSuicide Squad was in theaters for an impressive 14 weeks and earned more than $700 million worldwide, while Fantastic Beasts has been open for less than two weeks and has already made nearly $500 million. [19] [20].

This success will likely carry into 2017, as Wonder Woman, Justice League, and two more animated Lego movies are all slated for wide release. [21].

Machinima's logo [23].

Machinima’s logo [22]

In news besides its releases, Warner Bros. also recently announced it will acquire Machinima, a “global programming service and production company” with a focus on gamer culture. [23]. The deal, which was estimated to be just slightly under $100 million, will allow Machinima to be its own entity within the Warner Bros. Digital Networks. [24].


HBO logo [31]

HBO logo [31]

Home Box Office, or HBO, is one of Time Warner’s most successful divisions. In terms of its financial performance, in the 2016 third quarter HBO’s revenues increased 4%, or $59 million, to $1.4 billion due to a 5% increase in subscription revenues. [12].

HBO’s content has gone over incredibly well with viewers. HBO took home 22 Primetime Emmys at the 2016 Emmy Awards, the most of any other network for the 15th year in a row. [12] [29]. Shows such as Veep, Game of Thrones, and Last Night with John Oliver all have loyal fan bases, while newcomer Westworld premiered in October 2016 to more than 13 million viewers. [12].

In other news, HBO just recently launched a new video streaming service in Spain, HBO España, that is expected to very well. The service offers both original HBO content, as well as films and programming from other networks as well, like Disney, Nickelodeon, and other Spanish programming. [30].

AT&T Merger

Click here for AT&T and Time Warner Merger (Video): http://nyti.ms/2exY5SK [27]

AT&T is looking to purchase Time Warner, Inc. in a $85 billion deal, and despite many setbacks, AT&T is confident the deal will go through. [25]. Were the FCC to oversee this deal, the time frame would have been elongated and the deal itself would be much less likely to go into effect. However, it is likely the deal will not be subject to the tight restrictions set by the FCC, as the FCC may be excluded from the process and the decision will be made by the Department of Justice. Randall L. Stephenson, the CEO of AT&T, is very optimistic regarding this scenario and said this deal will satisfy not only those looking for earnings growth, but also investors that are simply searching for income. [27]. However, this deal will cause AT&T to push its debt upwards of $190 billion. [27]. The average user of DirecTV Now will pay $35 per month, which translates to $1.32 gross margin, and despite an apparent lack of funding, there are expected to be approximately 15 million paid subscribers by 2020. [26].

AT&T logo []

AT&T logo [28]

Many investors are skeptical of the deal and doubt the level of success predicted by AT&T. AT&T, being the only company of its competitors to move in this direction, will be able to corner a large section of the market before anyone else. Through securing customers with a low price now, AT&T hopes to attract many more consumers in the future while still being able to raise the price of service as necessary. [26]. Furthermore, AT&T wants to boost their wireless business in an attempt to take back some of the market from other wireless companies. They plan to do this by allowing wireless users to watch DirecTV without using data. This is known as zero-rating and it’s frowned upon by the FCC because it would allow for AT&T to reduce competition, especially among its own assets. [25]. Between the low prices as well as other incentives to switch, AT&T is focused on increasing its consumer following as opposed to generating revenue. Revenue will theoretically be the focus after AT&T has accrued a mass following. In addition, it’s predicted there will be less subscription cancellations as well as a large boost in advertising revenue. [25]. Should the deal be successful, it will be one of the largest to date and will push AT&T further ahead of competitors. Should the deal not be approved, or even fail, AT&T will have to tread very carefully to avoid serious damage to the company’s finances, as well as the integrity of the company.



[1] Time Warner Cables Customer Service Phone Number, Office Address, Toll Free Helpline Support. Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://www.officeaddresshelplinenumber.com/time-warner-cables-customer-service-phone-number-office-address-toll-free-helpline-support/

[2] The Creator of Time Warner, Steven J. Ross, Is Dead at 65. Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/12/21/obituaries/the-creator-of-time-warner-steven-j-ross-is-dead-at-65.html

[3] Top 3 Companies Owned By Time Warner (TWX). Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://www.investopedia.com/articles/markets/102215/top-3-companies-owned-time-warner.asp

[4] Company Profile. Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://www.timewarner.com/company

[5] Statistics on Mergers. Retrieved November 27, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20120106045040/http://www.imaa-institute.org/statistics-mergers-acquisitions.html

[6] AOL merger was ‘the biggest mistake in corporate history’, believes Time Warner chief Jeff Bewkes. Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/mediatechnologyandtelecoms/media/8031227/AOL-merger-was-the-biggest-mistake-in-corporate-history-believes-Time-Warner-chief-Jeff-Bewkes.html

[7] AT&T to Acquire Time Warner. Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://about.att.com/story/att_to_acquire_time_warner.html

[8] Senior Corporate Executives. Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://www.timewarner.com/company/management/senior-corporate-executives

[9] TWX: NY. Retrieved November 27, 2016. https://www.bloomberg.com/quote/TWX:US

[10] Time Warner Declares Regular Quarterly Cash Dividend. Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://www.timewarner.com/newsroom/press-releases/2016/10/27/time-warner-declares-regular-quarterly-cash-dividend

[11] Dividend Action: Time Warner Inc. (NYSE:TWX) advises to “Mark your calendars” for Dec 15, 2016; dividends expected to reach $0.40. Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://friscofastball.com/2016/11/27/dividend-action-time-warner-inc-nysetwx-advises-to-mark-your-calendars-for-dec-15-2016-dividends-expected-to-reach-0-40/

[12] Time Warner Inc. Revenue & Earnings Per Share (EPS). Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://www.nasdaq.com/symbol/twx/revenue-eps

[13] Earnings Releases & Related Materials. Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://ir.timewarner.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=70972&p=quarterlyearnings

[14] Weekend Box Office: November 25-27, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2016. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/weekend/chart/

[15] Warner Bros. Logo Design Evolution. Retrieved November 28, 2016. http://annyas.com/screenshots/warner-bros-logo/

[16] Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. Retrieved November 28, 2016. http://www.warnerbros.com/studio/divisions/warner-bros-entertainment-inc

[17] Warner Bros. Pictures. Retrieved November 28, 2016. http://www.warnerbros.com/studio/divisions/warner-bros-pictures

[18] Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them – Final Trailer [HD]. Retrieved November 28, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vso5o11LuGU

[19] Box Office Mojo: Suicide Squad. Retrieved November 28, 2016. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=dc2016.htm

[20] Box Office Mojo: Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. Retrieved November 28, 2016. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=fantasticbeasts.htm

[21] Warner Bros., Quietly Thriving, Recasts Its Own Story. Retrieved November 28, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/08/business/media/warner-bros-quietly-thriving-recasts-its-own-story.html

[22] Machinima. Retrieved November 28, 2016. http://www.machinima.com/

[23] Warner Bros. Entertainment to Acquire Machinima. Retrieved November 28, 2016.  http://www.warnerbros.com/studio/news/warner-bros-entertainment-acquire-machinima

[24] Warner Bros. Acquires Full Control of Machinima. Retrieved November 28, 2016. http://variety.com/2016/digital/news/warner-bros-acquires-machinima-1201920793/

[25] McAlone, Nathan. “Here’s Why AT&T Is Buying Time Warner, and Why It Thinks the Government Can’t Stop the Sale.” Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 15 Nov. 2016. Web. 28 Nov. 2016. http://www.businessinsider.com/att-time-warner-merger-government-regulation-2016-11

[26] Molla, Rani, and Shira Ovide. “AT&T Plays It Forward.” Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg, 23 Nov. 2016. Web. 28 Nov. 2016. https://www.bloomberg.com/gadfly/articles/2016-11-23/at-t-wants-digital-video-share-with-direct-tv-now

[27] Morgenson, Gretchen. “The AT&T-Time Warner Merger: A Match Built on Hope.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 28 Oct. 2016. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.  http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/30/business/the-att-time-warner-merger-a-match-built-on-hope.html?_r=0

[28] LLC, UnderConsideration. “Reviewed.” Brand New: New Logo and Identity for AT&T by Interbrand. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.  http://www.underconsideration.com/brandnew/archives/new_logo_and_identity_for_att_by_interbrand.php#.WDyz-6IrL_Q

[29] How FX Broke HBO’s Grip on the Emmy Awards. Retrieved November 28, 2016. http://fortune.com/2016/09/19/emmy-awards-2016-hbo-fx/

[30] HBO Launches in Spain, Adds Content from Disney, Nickelodeon. Retrieved November 28, 2016. http://variety.com/2016/biz/global/hbo-espana-spain-disney-nickelodeon1201927778-1201927778/

[31] HBO Logos. Retrieved November 28, 2016. https://www.homeboxoffice.com/lodging/cmp/logos.html

CBS Corp. (TV broadcast & cable properties only)

by Emily Norman

CBS Corporation

Brief History

Classic CBS Logo, Courtesy of awfulannouncing.com.

Classic CBS Logo. [1]

Founded in 1927 by Arthur Judson as an alternative to NBC, the Columbia Broadcasting System has been delivering news and entertainment for nearly a century.  CBS has flourished in the realm of television, as it produced hits such as The Andy Griffith Show (1960-1968), M*A*S*H (1972-1983), and 60 Minutes (1968-). In 1995, the company was sold to Westinghouse Electric Corporation for about $5 billion.  Today, Westinghouse is known as CBS Corporation [2].

Corporate Information

 Key Executives

Sumner M. Redstone, Courtesy of cbscorporation.com

Sumner M. Redstone, Executive Chairman. [3]

Leslie Moonves, President and Chief Executive Officer, Courtesy of cbscorporation.com

Leslie Moonves, President and Chief Executive Officer. [4]

Anthony G. Ambrosio, Senior Executive Vice President. [5]

Anthony G. Ambrosio, Senior Executive Vice President. [5]


For the 2014 third quarter, CBS announced a revenue of $3.37 billion, which is up 2% from the 2013 third quarter.  Similarly, advertising revenue also grew 2%, due to Thursday Night Football as well as midterm elections.  However, the company’s adjusted net earnings were just $400 million, down $31 million from the year before.  Also during the third quarter, CBS bought back just under seven million shares of its own stock for about $400 million [6].  As of November 28th, 2014, the price of one share was $54.88.  This was just above of its 52-week low of $48.83 [7].

Broadcast Programming

CBS Daytime Programming

The Cast of The Young and the Restless.

The Cast of The Young and the Restless. [8]

CBS has always excelled in the world of daytime drama.  Now, in 2014, it is the only broadcast network to feature more than one soap opera: The Young and the Restless (1973-) and The Bold and the Beautiful (1987-).  The Young and the Restless saw a 1.3 rating for the 18-49 demo this past September, which is up 8% from March.  This bump in viewership is accredited to the return of Shemar Moore [9].  Meanwhile, its sister-soap, The Bold and the Beautiful, featured a pair of cross-over episodes with Big Brother in celebration of Halloween [10].  Both these daytime dramas have performed spectacularly, routinely beating out NBC’s Days of Our Lives and ABC’s General Hospital [11].

Soap Opera Ratings for the Week of November 3rd - November 7th.

Soap Opera Ratings for the Week of November 3rd – November 7th, 2014. [11]

CBS Primetime Programming

The Cast of Scorpion.

The Cast of Scorpion. [12]

For the 2014-2015 season, CBS launched five new series in the fall.  The majority of the new shows are hour-long dramas, including Scorpion, Stalker, Madam Secretaryand the second spin-off of the hit series NCISNCIS: NEW ORLEANS.  CBS only launched one new sitcom this fall: The McCarthys [13].  Of these new series, Scorpion is performing the best, with an average 18-49 demo rating of 2.47 as of November 19th, 2014.  At the bottom of the pack is the network’s lone rookie sitcom, The McCarthys, which is averaging a rating of about 1.51 in the same demo, making it susceptible to cancelation [14].  None of CBS’ new launches have been canceled as of November 20th, 2014 [15].

The Cast of The Big Bang Theory.

The Cast of The Big Bang Theory. [16]

The network boasts The Big Bang Theory as one of its top ratings giants.  Now in its eighth season, the sitcom is consistently one of the highest-rated shows of the week, earning a whopping 4.5 in the 18-49 demo the week of November 10th [17].  The series has already been renewed for a ninth season [15].  Now in its twelfth season, NCIS has consistently ranked high in overall viewership; for the week of November 10th, the series boasted over 17 million viewers, trailing just behind the 20 million that NBC’s coverage of Sunday Night Football brought in [17].  The 2014-2015 season also marks the end of two of the network’s major veteran shows: Two and a Half Men and The Mentalist.  After having lost two of its leading men, Two and a Half Men reached an all-time low average of 10.66 million viewers for its eleventh season, and, while 10 million viewers is still an impressive figure, the show has run its course and will go off the air in May [18].  The Mentalist garnered around 11.5 million viewers in its previous season.  It has been speculated that, should these numbers remain impressive throughout the show’s shortened 13-episode-long final season, Warner Brothers could shop the show to other networks [19].

CBS Ratings

CBS’ Average Ratings for the 2014-2015 Season, As of November 19th, 2014. [14]

Additional Properties Programming

The CW Programming

Grant Gustin as The Flash.

Grant Gustin as The Flash. [20]

The joint venture of Time Warner and CBS, The CW has been a staple in young adult programming since 2006 [21].  For the 2014-2015 season, The CW launched two new series: The Flash and Jane the Virgin [22].  The Flash garnered nearly seven million viewers in the Live+7 ratings for its October premiere, making it the most watched piece of television that the network has ever aired [23].  Meanwhile, Jane the Virgin has accumulated critical acclaim for introducing diversity to The CW’s lineup [24].  Both The Flash and Jane the Virgin were picked up for full-season orders on October 21st [25].

The Cast of Supernatural.

The Cast of Supernatural. [26] 

Supernatural, which began as a WB series in 2005, recently celebrated not only the debut of its tenth season, but also its 200th episode, which garnered the show’s highest ratings since the season premiere: 2.92 million viewers in the Live+3 category [27].  The network has also decreed that a 22nd cycle of America’s Next Top Model be commissioned for the 2015 season [28].  As of Friday, November 14th, the show’s current cycle holds a 0.4 in the 18-49 demo [29].

The CW's Average Ratings, As of November 19th, 2014.

The CW’s Average Ratings for the 2014-2015 Season, As of November 19th, 2014. [30]

Showtime Programming

Kyle MacLachlan as Agent Dale Cooper on Twin Peaks.

Kyle MacLachlan as Agent Dale Cooper on Twin Peaks. [31]

CBS’ cable holding, Showtime, announced this fall its intentions to resurrect  Twin Peaks, which ran from 1990-1991 on ABC.  Showtime will air the original 30 episodes ahead of the new series, which will consist of nine episodes.  The continuation of Twin Peaks will debut in 2016 [32].  In the meantime, Showtime continues to experience success with its critically-acclaimed series Homeland.  The  series garnered a season-best 1.66 million viewers on November 16th, however, when all platforms are taken into account, the series is averaging well over 5 million viewers on a weekly basis.  Meanwhile, The Affair, which airs in the slot following Homeland, delivered roughly 778,000 viewers that same evening, up 16% from the previous week.  As with Homeland, multi-platform viewing accounts for a significant portion of its viewership, resulting in a total number of 3.8 million viewers [33].

Showtime’s Average Ratings for the 2014-2015 Season, As of November 19th, 2014.

Showtime’s Average Ratings, As of November 19th, 2014. [34]

Current Events

CBS All Access

This fall, CBS became the first broadcast network to begin offering a streaming service akin to HBO’s service.  This product is called CBS All Access and costs subscribers $5.99 a month.  That being said, as of October 16th, the service is only offered in seven US markets, and does not feature NFL games.  CBS All Access offers customers a wide array of both current series and canceled series [35].

CBS New York's Coverage of CBS All Access

CBS New York’s Coverage of CBS All Access.  Click for Full Video. [36]

Dispute with Dish

In November of 2014, CBS experienced a dispute with Dish TV over negotiations.  The companies’ previous contract was signed in January of 2012, and was set to expire by the end of November, however, CBS, along with other major broadcast networks, filed a lawsuit against Dish, citing their ad-skipping feature as the main source of conflict.  The feature, which allows the customer to automatically skip over commercials, also prompted an attempt on CBS’ behalf to break their current contract with the satellite company [37].  With multiple Owned & Operated stations on the verge of being blacked out to Dish customers, both companies agreed to a deadline-extension on their current contract; as of November 26th, the extension will reach into early December, prompting further negotiation, while the O&O stations still air their programming [38].


[1] CBS Logo. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://awfulannouncing.com/2013/cbs-sports-chairman-sean-mcmanus-on-that-other-pregame-show-concussions-and-fantasy-football.html

[2] CBS Corporation. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/100876/CBS-Corporation

[3] Sumner M. Redstone. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.cbscorporation.com/ourcompany-executives.php?id=&exec=156

[4] Leslie Moonves. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.cbscorporation.com/ourcompany-executives.php?id=&exec=150

[5] Anthony G. Ambrosio. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.cbscorporation.com/ourcompany-executives.php?id=&exec=135

[6] Investor Relations – Financial and Stock Information. Retrieved November 28, 2014, from http://investors.cbscorporation.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=99462&p=quarterlyearnings 

[7] Investor Relations – Stock Quote. Retrieved November 28, from http://investors.cbscorporation.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=99462&p=irol-shareowner_stockquote

[8] The Cast of The Young and the Restless. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Young_and_the_Restless

[9] Big Ratings for Y&R. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.cbs.com/shows/the_young_and_the_restless/news/1003158/

[10] B&B & Big Brother Spooktacular. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.cbs.com/shows/the_bold_and_the_beautiful/news_blog/1003342/

[11] Soap Opera Ratings. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2014/11/15/soap-opera-ratings-the-young-the-restless-the-bold-the-beautiful-general-hospital-up-in-women-18-49-viewers/327190/

[12] The Cast of Scorpion. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://www.cbs.com/shows/scorpion/about/

[13] CBS Fall TV Schedule 2014. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://tvline.com/2014/05/14/cbs-fall-tv-lineup-2014-the-big-bang-theory-monday/

[14] CBS 2014-15 Season Ratings. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://tvseriesfinale.com/tv-show/cbs-2014-15-season-ratings-33998/

[15] CBS Predictions. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2014/11/18/cbs-predictions-stalker-is-a-toss-up-to-be-canceled-or-renewed/327282/

[16] The Cast of The Big Bang Theory. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.movieweb.com/movies-you-havent-seen-with-the-cast-of-the-big-bang-theory

[17] TV Ratings Broadcast Top 25. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2014/11/18/tv-ratings-broadcast-top-25-sunday-night-football-tops-week-8-with-adults-18-49/329077/

[18] ‘Two and a Half Men’ Final Season. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www.ibtimes.com/two-half-men-final-season-how-show-survived-losing-charlie-sheen-why-season-12-last-1716310 

[19] ‘The Mentalist’ to end on CBS. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://insidetv.ew.com/2014/11/04/the-mentalist-canceled/

[20] Grant Gustin as The Flash. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.comicvine.com/articles/big-change-to-flash-s-role-in-arrow-update/1100-147601/

[21] The CW. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.cbscorporation.com/portfolio.php?division=95 

[22] The CW’s Fall Schedule. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://tvline.com/2014/06/25/cw-fall-tv-schedule-2014-arrow-vampire-diaries/

[23] ‘The Flash’ Premiere Ratings. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://deadline.com/2014/10/the-flash-ratings-premiere-most-watched-cw-863045/

[24] ‘Jane the Virgin’ is The CW’s Best Show Ever. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/10/28/jane-the-virgin-is-the-cw-s-best-show-ever.html

[25] ‘The Flash’ ‘Jane the Virgin’ Get Full Season Orders. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/live-feed/flash-jane-virgin-get-full-739683

[26] The Cast of Supernatural. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://www.denofgeek.com/tv/supernatural/29404/supernatural-spin-off-casts-its-leads

[27] The CW’s ‘The Flash’ and 200th Episode of ‘Supernatural’. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2014/11/16/the-cws-the-flash-and-200th-episode-of-supernatural-hit-best-ratings-since-season-premiere-in-live-3-ratings/328353/

[28] America’s Next Top Model Renewed. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://variety.com/2014/tv/news/americas-next-top-model-renewed-the-cw-1201358635/

[29] Friday TV Ratings. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://tvseriesfinale.com/tv-show/friday-tv-ratings-last-man-standing-antm-amazing-race-grimm-shark-tank-34732/

[30] CW 2014-2015 Season Ratings. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://tvseriesfinale.com/tv-show/cw-2014-15-season-ratings-34237/

[31] Kye MacLachlan as Agent Dale Cooper. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://inthetreesartpreview.blogspot.com

[32] Cult Favorite ‘Twin Peaks’ to Return. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://www.whas11.com/story/entertainment/2014/10/20/15980076/ 

[33] Showtime’s ‘Homeland,’ ‘The Affair’ Continue Ratings Rise. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://variety.com/2014/tv/ratings/showtimes-homeland-the-affair-continue-ratings-rise-1201359488/

[34] Showtime’s Average Ratings. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://tvseriesfinale.com/tv-show/showtime-tv-show-ratings-33448/

[35] HBO, CBS Set Up Streaming Service. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://movienewsguide.com/hbo-cbs-set-streaming-service/34363

[36] CBS Offers Digital Subscription Service. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xBLol05Uh8 

[37] Dish Could Lose 16 CBS Stations In Fee Fight. Retrieved November 28, 2014, from http://www.tvpredictions.com/dish110314.htm

[38] Dish Extends CBS Deal Another Week. Retrieved November 28, 2014, from http://adage.com/article/media/dish-extends-cbs-deal-week-standoff-looms/296014/